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TRMM Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission

The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), a joint mission between NASA and the Japan Aerospace Exploration (JAXA) Agency to study rainfall for weather and climate research, officially came to an end on April 15, 2015 (see ). Launched in November 1997, with a design lifetime of 3 years, TRMM produced over 17 years of valuable scientific data. TRMM carried 5 instruments: a 3-sensor rainfall suite (PR, TMI, VIRS) and 2 related instruments (LIS and CERES). TRMM delivered a unique 17-year dataset of global tropical rainfall and lightning. The TRMM dataset became the space standard for measuring precipitation, and led to research that improved our understanding of tropical cyclone structure and evolution, convective system properties, lightning-storm relationships, climate and weather modeling, and human impacts on rainfall. The data also supported operational applications such as flood and drought monitoring and weather forecasting.
(4/9/2015) Frequently Asked Questions about TRMM Spacecraft Re-Entry .

Monday May 18, 2015
TYPHOON DOLPHIN Weakening After Drenching GUAM
Typhoon DOLPHIN battered and drenched the islands of Guam and Rota as it passed over the channel between them last Saturday. Luckily for Guam, DOLPHIN's most powerful winds occurred after passing to the northwest of Guam. By May 16, 2015 DOLPHIN had winds estimated at 140 kts (161 mph) making it a category five super typhoon on the Saffir-Simpson hurricane wind scale. The GPM core observatory satellite flew above the weakening typhoon early this morning when winds had dropped to less than 100 kts (115 mph). GPM's Microwave Imager (GMI) found that DOLPHIN was dropping rain over the open waters of the Pacific Ocean at a rate of over 65 mm (2.6 inches) per hour.
This image shows a 3-D view of the area northeast of the typhoon's eye using data from GPM satellite's Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR).
The image above shows a rainfall analysis computed from data generated by the Integrated Multi-satellite Retrievals for GPM (IMERG). This analysis shows the total rainfall computed from May 11, 2015 to May 18, 2015 when typhoon DOLPHIN was moving through the Marianas. The heaviest rainfall estimates near Guam and Rota were found to be over 240 mm (almost 10 inches) in the channel between the two islands. Rota not only received the strongest winds because of the island was in the right front quadrant of the typhoon but, according to this analysis, also received significantly more rainfall than Guam.

 GMI DPR Rainfall

 GMI DPR Rainfall
Wednesday May 13, 2015
GPM Views Typhoon DOLPHIN Headed For GUAM
Typhoon DOLPHIN formed south of Pohnpei in the western Pacific Ocean on May 7, 2015. DOLPHIN's power has oscillated from a weak tropical depression to typhoon intensity over the past five days. DOLPHIN is now an intensifying typhoon headed westward.

The GPM core observatory satellite flew over DOLPHIN on May 12, 2015 at 2301 UTC. At that time DOLPHIN's wind speeds were estimated at about 65 kts (75 mph). Rainfall collected by GPM's Microwave Imager (GMI) showed that rain was falling at a rate of over 47 mm (1.9 inches) per hour in a feeder band to the southeast of DOLPHIN's eye.

 GMI DPR Rainfall
Ku Band data from GPM's Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) were used in this image to show the vertical structure of rainfall along the satellite's path. The GPM radar's field of view was of rain bands to the west of DOLPHIN's eye. Those data show that some storm top heights were reaching heights of above 15 km (9.8 miles) in one intense feeder band that was transporting moisture from the southern side of the typhoon.

The Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) predicts that typhoon DOLPHIN will become more powerful and will hit GUAM in a couple days with sustained winds of about 100 kts (115 mph).

 GMI DPR Rainfall
On Sunday morning (May 10, 2015) Tropical storm ANA dropped heavy rainfall as it came ashore near Myrtle Beach, South Carolina. The GPM satellite had a good look at dissipating tropical depression ANA on May 11, 2015 at 0116 UTC (May 10, 2015 9:16 PM EDT). GPM's Microwave Imager (GMI) found that ANA's rainfall intensity had greatly decreased as the dissipating tropical cyclone was moving over North Carolina toward the northeast.
Images and captions by Hal Pierce (SSAI/NASA GSFC)

  resources TITLE
link to  extreme events archives  link to  3 hourly rainfall image + a week of global rainfall accumulation link to images showing potential flood areas rain accumulation plots and  realtime PR vertical slice images link to Latest 30 Day average rainfall image, anomalies image  and
 ENSO Precipitation Index (ESPI) information. link to averaged monthly rainfall (3B43) Link to the latest quicklook at TRMM orbits  Link to the Average Recurrence Interval (ARI) images Link to educational videos

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